Resources for Professionals
Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs (AMCHP): Infant Mortality. Offers information and resources about its programs to help state public health agencies and communities address infant mortality.
Association of SIDS and Infant Mortality Programs (ASIP). Hosts information about the National Sudden and Unexpected Infant/Child Death and Pregnancy Loss Project IMPACT, which is part of a national consortium of four centers supported by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) to address infant mortality and pregnancy loss.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Offers resources and initiatives aimed at reducing infant mortality and pregnancy loss that include
CDC's Division of Reproductive Health: Maternal and Infant Health. Contains links to reports, data, and other resources about promoting healthy pregnancy and infant health and preventing premature birth and infant illness and mortality, including SIDS and SUID. Recent publications and initiatives include:
· CDC's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWR). Presents data based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. Recent reports about infant mortality and pregnancy loss include:
o Apparent Disappearance of the Black-White Infant Mortality Gap—Dane County, Wisconsin, 1990-2007. (2009).
o QuickStats: Fetal Mortality Rates, by Period of Gestation—United States, 1990-2005. (2009).
o QuickStats: Infant, Neonatal, and Postneonatal Annual Mortality Rates—United States, 1940-2006. (2009).
· CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Includes national data about infant mortality and pregnancy loss. Recent publications include:
o Challenge of Fetal Mortality. (2009).
o Deaths: Final Data for 2006. (2009). This report includes infant mortality rates and lists leading causes of infant death.
o FASTATS: Infant Health (rev. ed.). (2009). This fact sheet presents national infant mortality data statistics with links to full reports and data sets.
o Fetal and Perinatal Mortality, United States, 2005. (2009).
o Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2005 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. (2008). This report presents data from the linked birth/infant death data set.
o Also see the NCHS databases, Data 2010, Health Data Interactive, and VitalStats.
· CDC's Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Across the U.S. (REACH U.S.). Describes this initiative that supports community coalitions in designing, implementing, and evaluating community-driven strategies to eliminate health disparities in eight priority areas, one of which is infant mortality.
· Also see CDC's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD), and NCBDDD's brochure for health professionals about stillbirths.
CityMatCH. Contains tools and resources for implementing the Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) approach for mobilizing communities to reduce feto-infant mortality in U.S. cities.
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). Contains research and grant information, publications, and other resources for health professionals, researchers, and families about pregnancy and infant and child health topics, including pregnancy loss, birth defects, prematurity, and infant mortality. Reports describe the research and training supported by NICHD's Pregnancy and Perinatology Branch to improve the outcomes of pregnancy, reduce infant mortality, and minimize maternal and infant morbidities.
First Candle. Hosts information about the National Sudden and Unexpected Infant/Child Death and Pregnancy Loss Program Support Center, which is part of a national consortium of four centers supported by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) to address infant mortality and pregnancy loss. Provides a hotline in English and Spanish for expectant and new parents on ways to help their infants survive and thrive, for parents who have experienced the death of an infant, and for professionals working with families. Also see First Candle's resources about infant mortality risk reduction, bereavement, and safe sleep environments.
Healthy People 2010. Offers information and publications about this national health-promotion and disease-prevention initiative that is coordinated by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). View the maternal, infant, and child health focus area to learn about the objectives related to infant mortality and pregnancy loss. See Data2010 for data about the objectives and the HP2010 Information Access Project for access to published literature related to the objectives. Also learn how to participate in the development of Healthy People 2020.
Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies: The Courage to Love Commission. Presents papers, PowerPoint presentations, and fact sheets from this initiative that analyzed racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality. Papers include
March of Dimes (MOD). Contains resources for health professionals and expectant and new parents in English and Spanish about preconceptional and prenatal care, birth defects, pregnancy loss, prematurity, bereavement, and how to get involved in improving infants' health by reducing the incidence of birth defects and infant mortality. Offers perinatal statistics (including infant mortality rates), continuing-education modules, medical reference information, and video and audio resources.
Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). Describes MCHB's projects and initiatives on behalf of America's women, infants, children, adolescents, and their families. Initiatives include Healthy Start, a program to address factors contributing to infant mortality, low birthweight, and other adverse perinatal outcomes in high-risk populations.
National Center for Child Death Review. Describes the child death review process for infants, children, and adolescents from birth through age 18; offers tools for child death review teams; provides state program information; and presents child mortality data by state.
National Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC). Hosts information about the National Sudden and Unexpected Infant/Child Death and Pregnancy Loss Project, which is part of a national consortium of four centers supported by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) to address infant mortality and pregnancy loss. Provides technical assistance and develops resources on cultural and linguistic competence to help programs effectively address racial and ethnic disparities in perinatal, infant, and child mortality and pregnancy loss.
National Fetal and Infant Mortality Review Program (NFIMR). Contains a wealth of resources for implementing the fetal and infant mortality review (FIMR) method, including a directory of state and community FIMR projects, program descriptions, data-abstraction forms, sample laws to implement and safeguard FIMR proceedings, and an online discussion group. NFIMR is a collaborative effort between the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB).
National Healthy Start Association (NHSA). Describes the Healthy Start program and provides general information about infant mortality, low-birthweight infants, and racial disparities in perinatal outcomes. Includes a directory of Healthy Start programs nationwide and a newsletter. Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), Healthy Start provides community-based, culturally competent, family-centered, comprehensive perinatal health services to women, infants, and their families in communities with very high rates of infant mortality. Recent publications include
National Infant Mortality Awareness Month Toolkit. (2009). This toolkit aims to help Healthy Start projects promote the effectiveness of programs and efforts to reduce infant deaths, low birthweight, preterm births, and disparities in perinatal outcomes.
National Sudden and Unexpected Infant/Child Death and Pregnancy Loss Resource Center. Presents a wealth of resources for health and human service professionals, including first responders and child care providers, as well as for families about risk reduction and bereavement for pregnancy loss and sudden and unexpected infant and child death. The center is part of a national consortium of four centers supported by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) to address infant mortality and pregnancy loss. Resources include fact sheets, bibliographies, statistics, Spanish-language materials, a multimedia collection, a resource database, journal article summaries.
Office of Minority Health: Infant Health. Contains statistics about infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups and a fact sheet and list of links to publications and Web sites about infant mortality. Initiatives include:
· A Healthy Baby Begins with You. Presents information about this national print and radio campaign to raise awareness about infant mortality with an emphasis on the African-American community. Includes campaign materials and infant mortality disparities fact sheets. Also presents information about another phase of the campaign, the Preconception Peer Educators (PPE) Program, which is designed to educate the college-age population about preconception health and care and to train them to serve as ambassadors for their peers who are not attending college.
The databases listed below are excellent tools for identifying data, additional literature and research, and programs addressing infant mortality and pregnancy loss.
- Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI). Presents county-specific data on health status indicators obtained from a variety of federal agencies including the Department of Health and Human Services, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Census Bureau, and the Department of Labor. Use the indicators to compare a county with counties similar in population composition and selected demographics and to characterize the overall health of a county and its citizens to support health planning. Select a state and county and click on Display Data. Select Measures of Birth and Death to view birth measures and infant mortality rates. CHSI is a service of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
- Data2010: The Healthy People 2010 Database. Contains the most recent monitoring data for tracking Healthy People 2010. To obtain data about infant mortality and contributing factors, click on the field, Data by Focus Area. Under the field, Select a Focus Area, choose 16 - Maternal, Infant, and Child Health from the pop-up menu. Next, click on the button for Include Related Objectives From Other Focus Areas in the Table. Click on the Submit button. This data set is provided by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) via CDC Wonder.
- Health Data Interactive. Presents interactive online data tables on pregnancy and birth, health conditions and risk factors, health care access and use, and mortality. Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality data and data about preterm birth and low birthweight are presented. HDI is a service of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
- KIDS COUNT Data Center. Contains information about this national and state-by-state effort to track the status of children in the United States. Generate custom graphs, maps, ranked lists, and state-by-state profiles of birth outcomes, among other child health indicators. KIDS COUNT is a project of the Annie E. Casey Foundation (AECF).
- Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. Contains data about infant births/deaths occurring within the United States to U.S. residents. Data are available by county of mother's residence, infant's age, underlying cause of death, gender, birthweight, birth plurality, birth order, gestational age at birth, period of prenatal care, maternal race and ethnicity, maternal age, maternal education, and marital status. This data set is provided by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) via CDC Wonder.
- PeriStats. Provides access to maternal and infant health-related data at the national, state, county, and city level by aggregating data from several government agencies and organizations. Topics include the timing and frequency of prenatal care, preterm birth, low birthweight, infant mortality, tobacco use, and health insurance coverage. Over 60,000 graphs, maps, and tables are available, and data are referenced to the relevant source. PeriStats is a service of the March of Dimes.
- Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). Presents state-specific, population-based data on maternal attitudes and experiences before, during, and immediately following pregnancy. PRAMS is a surveillance project of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state health departments.
- State Health Facts Online. Contains state-level data on more than 500 health topics. View individual state profiles, or compare data for all states by category. For infant mortality data, click on the Health Status category and select one of several subcategories under Infants. For data about low birthweight and prematurity, click on the Health Status category, and select one of several subcategories under Births. This system is provided by the Kaiser Family Foundation.
- Title V Information System (TVIS). Contains data from annual Title V Block Grant applications and reports submitted by all 59 U.S. states and jurisdictions. To identify state efforts to reduce infant mortality, conduct several searches: (1) Select Program Data; scroll to Medicaid/Non Medicaid Comparison and select Infants deaths per 1,000 live births; select a state and Annual Report Year; and click on Start Search. (2) Select Measurement and Indicator Data; select National Outcome Measures; select Most Recent Year Available or Multi-Year Report; select a state and infant mortality measure; click on Start Search. (3) Select Measurement and Indicator Data; scroll to State Data; select State Priority Needs Keyword Search; select Keyword: Morbidity/Mortality and Population: Infants; click on Start Search. (4) Select Measurement and Indicator Data; scroll to State Data; select State Outcome Measures; select Search By Keyword/Population; select a state and Keyword: Morbidity/Mortality and Population: Infants; click on Start Search. (5) View State Snapshots of Maternal and Child Health for a summary of each state's infant mortality data. TVIS is a service of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB).
- VitalStats. Presents tables, data files, and reports that allow users to access and examine birth and perinatal mortality data interactively. This system is provided by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).